02 Jul Starting from zero?
For some time, I’ve been reading blogs about exploiting that seems now at last my time has come to change the role. In this blog I will publish posts as a workshop “from scratch” the exploiting, and additionally I try often bring examples of vulnerabilities (hereafter “vulns” if allowed me) in the rial guorld. This post is primarily an intro with to acquire basic ideas.
Anyway, let’s start by defining the exploiting. The exploiting is the set of techniques that seek to exploit errors (bugs) the programmer to manipulate the behavior of the program, these errors are mainly poor forecasting of potential data that can provide the user. One time I read a quote (from a certain P. Williams) which he reads
From the point of view of a programmer, the user is no more than a peripheral drumming when you are sent a read request.
This idea is possibly leading to the occurrence of these errors. For me, the user is a potential serial murderer with which we must be educated better and why we do what we ask, to some extent, so it is necessary to verify the data that provides the user always properly before handling.
Exploitation can be at many levels (you can exploit for example the web server binary itself, or exploit the webapp that manages that server, techniques such as SQLi and XSS belong to the latter world, as for us, we will enjoy only the world binary, more beautiful at least for me) and of course there are cases of extremely complex operation and others with simpler schemes. A more complexity, more fun.
To continue to understand the full meaning of every sentence you read, dear reader, perhaps as healthy as it is to know a little assembler (for now IA32, and go into AMD64 and maybe ARM/64, maybe even AVR) I know it can be scary but well tamed is quite docile, in addition nor excessive knowledge is required before any instruction that one unknown can always consult a manual (for instance, Intel). Similarly, you need to know C or C ++ and Assembler more depth (“asm” from now on).
These techniques carry exploited since before many of us were born, although I do not think it is possible to determine in which year began research in this field. In any case, surely the intelligence agencies and take the advantage when the public started with it (as has always happened, being the best example cryptography, especially the discovery of asymmetric cryptography). However, the most important milestone was possibly the November 2, 1988 when Robert Tappan Morris, seeing the disaster that was coming, executed his famous Morris worm, responsible for infecting 6,000 computers 60000 connected to the Internet at the time (still ARPANET) ie 10%, causing a damage of thousands of dollars.
Multiple viruses have been used since then to spread by exploiting the network, the latter being the most notorious case WannaCry, who operated the EternalBlue (already try).
Another really important event was the publication of the article Smashing the Stack for Fun and Profit by Aleph1 during 1996 in Phrack (a large electronic magazine about hacking and phreacking) which was the exploitation of the buffer overflow.
Anyway, let’s start at once, right?
A buffer overflow occurs when a program allows writing beyond the end of the memory space that was reserved to store the data you are receiving. It is generally understood that a buffer overflow is in the stack, while for those that occurred in the heap will be called heap overflow (very broad topic that we still have some way off). Synonyms for stack buffer overflow are smashing, buffer overrun, stack overflow and similar combinations.
Let’s see how a writing out of bounds can lead to arbitrary code execution. You have to understand that a
call asd equivalent to performing a
push EIP; mov eip, asd, and that a
ret instruction is practically a
pop eip. Therefore, if we take advantage of a buffer overflow to overwrite the saved reach EIP, running
ret at the end of the function will be placed in EIP value we have placed there, gaining control program flow.
Normally a C function when it is compiled to assembler has a fixed pattern consisting of a prologue (keeps the stack frame of the above function and creates a new appropriate framework for local variables of the current function) code and an epilogue (restores the stack frame of the caller function), although the compiler adds certain instructions apart for reasons we do not want to analyze, exploit all that when we consider what we can change in our payload. Let’s see as an example the following code:
int print(char* arg)
print(“Hola, soy un programa de mier… prueban”);
After compiled (
gcc test.c -o test) the following code in asm (extracted by
objdump -d test -Mintel) is obtained
08048492 <print>: 8048492: 55 push ebp 8048493: 89 e5 mov ebp,esp 8048495: 53 push ebx 8048496: 83 ec 04 sub esp,0x4 8048499: e8 59 00 00 00 call 80484f7 <__x86.get_pc_thunk.ax> 804849e: 05 62 1b 00 00 add eax,0x1b62 80484a3: 83 ec 0c sub esp,0xc 80484a6: ff 75 08 push DWORD PTR [ebp+0x8] 80484a9: 89 c3 mov ebx,eax 80484ab: e8 a0 fe ff ff call 8048350 <printf@plt> 80484b0: 83 c4 10 add esp,0x10 80484b3: b8 7b 00 00 00 mov eax,0x7b 80484b8: 8b 5d fc mov ebx,DWORD PTR [ebp-0x4] 80484bb: c9 leave 80484bc: c3 ret
We proceed to analyze
Prologue, the former ebp is saved, and placed in ebp value esp.
For some reason the program to save the value of ebx modifies before they recover before leaving the function.
Prologue is finished creating the stack frame with a space between ebp and esp wait decreasing function of space needed for local variable or what it is. The framework is now 4 bytes.
call 80484f7 <__x86.get_pc_thunk.ax>
This gets in eax the address of the next instruction to be executed, it would be like a
mov eax, eip, but it turns out that instruction is illegal.
Related to the above statement, we’ll see what they do and how they relate.
For some reason the frame is enlarged by 12 bytes.
push DWORD PTR [ebp+0x8]
Access to the argument of the function in which we find as the calling convention cdecl (While x86_64 employed fastcall).
Finally, the compilers perform often nonsense.
call 8048350 <printf@plt>
Finally called printf(), passing as an argument the string that has happened to us as an argument (the argument is already pushed, as we have seen for two instructions).
Get rid of the frame.
return 123;, as the functions return value in eax.
mov ebx,DWORD PTR [ebp-0x4]
The value of ebx recovers previously saved.
mov esp, ebp ; pop ebp
It´s the epilogue function, the frame is restored.
We return to the caller function.
We could have analyzed the main () function, however this feature is specialist.
#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h>
void print(char* arg)
int main(int argc, char** argv)
if(argc < 2) return 1;
The problem is that strcpy copy without limit until finding a value ‘x00’ (NULL).
We can see through a debugger like gdb how to get control program flow to overdo the size of buf, introduce 500 A’s knowing that buf has a size 128.
$ gcc b.c -o vuln -fno-stack-protector -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=0 -m32
$ gdb -q ./vuln
Reading symbols from ./vuln...(no debugging symbols found)...done.
(gdb) run `perl -e 'print "A"x500'`
Starting program: /home/arget/vuln `perl -e 'print "A"x500'`
Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
0x41414141 in ?? ()
As you can see, there is a moment that the program attempted to execute code 0x41414141, 41 is in hexadecim0al the character ‘A’, showing that we walked the saved return address being collected by the
ret instruction. In the next post we will see how to take advantage of this control.